COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RISK FACTORS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG DIABETICS AND NON DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING THE GENERAL OUTPATIENTS CLINNICS IN PSSH JOS. NIGERIA
Background: Diabetes mellitus is the commonest endocrine disorder in Nigeria. The prevalence
of diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus, is increasing and this poses a significant
global healthcare challenge. A rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Plateau State from 3%
in 1992 to 10.3% in 2006 is a wakeup call to investigate the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus
and possibly determine those risk factors that could be responsible for the rise in prevalence of
type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Objectives: To identify the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients attending the
outpatient clinics in Plateau State Specialist Hospital. The study compared diabetics and non
diabetics who were matched for age and gender. The aim was to indentify the characteristics that
were different in diabetics as compared to non diabetics and whether these could be risk factors
for the disease.
Method: In this cross sectional comparative study, One hundred and fifty eight diabetics and one
hundred and fifty eight non diabetics were randomly selected from patients attending the outpatient
clinics. Diabetics in a stable condition and not requiring admission were matched for age and
gender with non diabetics who came to the hospital for outpatient services. A pilot-tested
questionnaire on demography, current and past dietary habits, physical activity, social habits, and
family history was used to collect data. Waist circumference, weight and height were measured
and BMI calculated. Data was analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science)
version 16.0. Statistical significance was set at p value less than 0.05. Continuous variables were
expressed as means ± standard deviation, while categorical values were expressed as proportions.
Student test was used for comparison of means and Chi square to determine for categorical
variables. The z test was used to calculate the relative risk for all identified risk factors.
Results: Three hundred and sixteen participants; one hundred and fifty eight diabetics and non
diabetics (56 males and 102 females for each group). The mean age was 49.86 ± 12.787 for the
diabetics and 49.58 ± 12.675 for the non diabetics (p value is 0.886). Family history of diabetes
mellitus (relative risk of 4.82, p value is 0.008), alcohol consumption (p value is 0.025, relative
risk of 1.92), overweight and obesity (p value is 0.0001), central obesity (relative risk of 0.5, p
value is 0.0001), physical inactivity (p value is 0.03), and dietary habit (p value is 0.036) were
identified as risk factors. Diabetes in close relatives and abdominal obesity were observed more in
diabetics than non diabetics.
Conclusion: The risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus described in this population include
advancing age, diabetes mellitus in first degree relatives, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity,
dietary habits and abdominal obesity. This is similar to what has been cited in other studies. At
variance, it was found that more than 80% of the diabetics reported a family history of diabetes
mellitus as compared to other studies where family history of diabetes mellitus is two to threefold.