COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR DYSLIPIDAEMIA IN HIV-INFECTED AND UNINFECTED CHILDREN SEEN AT THE AMINU KANO TEACHING HOSPITAL, KANO, NIGERIA
HIV infection has become a chronic disease in paediatric patients as a result of access to Anti
Retroviral Therapy (ART), which has significantly improved the prognosis and potential for long-
term survival. However, prolonged administration of these drugs (ART) is associated with
metabolic side effects, especially dyslipidaemia with potential increase in the risk of development
of cardiovascular disease as the affected children mature into adults.
The aim of the study was to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia among HIV
infected children aged 2-15 years seen at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano.
This comparative cross sectional study was conducted on two hundred and forty subjects from
August, 2015 to March, 2016. The subjects were made up of three groups of eighty HIV-infected
children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), eighty HIV-infected HAART naive
children and eighty HIV-negative age- and sex-matched apparently healthy children. Their bio
data, socio-demographic characteristics and physical examination findings (anthropometric
measurements inclusive) were recorded. Blood samples were also collected from each subject and
their lipid concentrations measured using enzymatic methods.
The prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia was 62.5%, 47.5%, and 40% in HIV-infected children on
HAART, HIV-infected HAART naïve and HIV-uninfected children respectively. The difference in
prevalence was statistically significant (χ2 =43.15, p=0.0001). Hypercholesterolaemia was present
in 47.5%, 11.3% and 8.7% in HIV-infected children on HAART, HIV-infected HAART naïve
children and HIV-uninfected children respectively. The difference in prevalence was statistically
significant (χ2 =8.40, p=0.014). The prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol was 41.3%, 17.5% and
7.5% in HIV-infected children on HAART, HIV-infected HAART naïve and HIV-negative
children respectively. These difference was statistically significant (χ2 =28.92, p=0.0001).
Risk factors associated with hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia among the HIV
infected children on HAART were, age at commencement of HAART less than 2 years, PI- based
HAART regimen, age group greater than 5 years, duration of HIV diagnosis greater than 1year and
duration of treatment on HAART for more than I year. However on multivariate analysis, PI-based
HAART regimen was the only independent predictor of hypercholesterolaemia in the HAART
treated group. Duration of diagnosis greater than 1 year was associated with hypercholesterolaemia
in HAART naïve HIV-infected children ( p value = 0.05).
Dyslipidaemia occurred in both HAART treated and HAART naïve HIV-positive children. It is
thus imperative to regularly assess the lipid profile of HIV infected children on regular basis and
institute appropriate treatment promptly.