PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AMONG FIRST DEGREE RELATIVES OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AT AMINU KANO TEACHING HOSPITAL, KANO
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem, with a high burden and
prohibitive cost of care particularly in developing countries rendering preventive measures the
best option in managing the rising tide, however, universal screening of the general population
would be time-consuming and expensive and has been shown to be not cost effective unless
selectively directed toward the high risk groups. Most previous studies showing familial
clustering of CKD were based abroad hence the need for this present study in Nigeria.
This study determined the prevalence of CKD and its risk factors among first degree relatives
(FDRs) of patients with CKD.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of first-degree relatives of CKD patients was conducted in
Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria. A total of 341 first-degree relatives were
reviewed and screened for proteinuria, microalbuminuria, haematuria, fasting plasma glucose,
fasting serum lipid and serum creatinine for determination of estimated glomerular filtration rate
(eGFR). Microalbuminuria, proteinuria, haematuria and eGFR were repeated after 3months for
FDRs with initial abnormal results.
CKD risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidaemia, were also
CKD was diagnosed according to the criteria of the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney
Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative.
Results: Of the 341 FDRs screened, mean age was 33.04±10.88 years and 68.6% were males.
The prevalence of CKD among first-degree relatives of CKD patients was 28.4% of which
screening identified majority (40.2%) at stage 1 of CKD, hypertension was seen in 25.8% of
which 24% were newly diagnosed, diabetes mellitus was seen in 14.4% of which 12% were
newly diagnosed, dyslipidaemia (6.5%), obesity (16.4%), proteinuria (24.9%), haematuria
(13.2%), 37.8% had microalbuminuria. On multivariate logistic regression analysis older age,
female gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and proteinuria were independent risk
factors of CKD.
Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD and its risk factors appears to be quite common among the
first-degree relatives of CKD patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Suggesting that
first degree relatives of patients with CKD also have a risk of developing CKD, and the group
should be targeted for CKD screening and prevention program.
Key Words: Chronic Kidney Disease, First-degree relatives, Prevalence, Risk Factors.