PURE TONE HEARING THRESHOLD LEVEL AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS ADULT PATIENTS (31 – 64 YEARS) ATTHE OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITALS’ COMPLEX, ILE-IFE
Among the most common chronic disorders of modern time, diabetes mellitus remains unique because of its multifactorial ramifications. Apart from the well-described association between congenital deafness and maternally inherited type of diabetes mellitus, the relationship between type 2 diabetes and hearing loss has been the subject of debate since Jordao reported a case of hearing loss with incipient diabetes coma almost 150 years ago. Since previous studies have been inconclusive regarding the presence, pattern and severity of hearing loss among type 2 diabetic patients and its relationship to metabolic control and duration of the disease, documentation of this relationship among adult diabetics in developing countries(especially West Africa) where type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent has become imperative; hence this study.
The aim of this study is to assess the hearing threshold levels amongdiabetes mellitus patients at the ObafemiAwolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This was a prospective hospital based cross sectional study of seventy consecutively selected adult type 2diabetic subjects recruited on consecutive clinic days from the endocrinology clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex as well as Seventy age and sex matched non-diabetic control subjects recruited from all cadres of staff in the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals’ Complex, Ile-ife. A Fasting blood sugar (FBS) test was done for both test subjects and control.
A tuning fork evaluation of hearing and pure tone audiometry tracings of these two groups was compared. A structured questionnaire to collect information on the history, clinical presentation,
examination findings and the pure tone audiometry (PTA) of the willing participants was administered.
The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21 software. Statistical level of significance was set at p = 0.05.
Results: The mean ages for the test and control groups were 48.4 years (SD 6.86) and 46.5 years (SD 5.85) respectively. Male to female ratio was 1:1. Hearing loss was more prevalent in diabetic patients (71.4%) compared to the non-diabetic control group (21.5%). The Pure tone average as well as the hearing levels for air and bone conduction were significantly higher for all frequencies tested except 0.25KHz in the diabetic group compared to the non-diabetic control group.
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was the most common type of hearing loss among diabetic subjects in this study (65.7%) and a mild to moderate hearing loss were the commoner forms of severity. The duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) was found to have no significant effect on the onset ofhearing loss (F-test = 1.011, p = 0.32).
Conclusion: Hearing loss is more prevalent among diabetic patients than non-diabetic individuals. The Pure tone averages for adult diabetic patients are also significantly higher than that of non-diabetic individual of a similar age. There is no gender predilection for hearing loss among individual with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is the most common type of hearing loss among diabetic patients. Mild and moderate hearing losses are the predominant forms of hearing loss severity. Duration of diabetes mellitus does not determine the onset of hearing loss.