GENITAL COLONIZATION BY GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AT FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE ABEOKUTA
Genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women in their third trimester has been shown to be a known risk factor for morbidity and mortality among new- borns.
To determine the prevalence of GBS colonization among pregnant women at FMC Abeokuta, evaluate its associated socio demographic factors and determine Neonatal outcome among exposed babies.
This was a longitudinal cohort study. The study was carried out in the ante-natal clinic and labour ward of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta. One hundred and sixty pregnant women presenting for routine ante-natal clinic between 35-41 weeks gestational age that consented to the study were recruited consecutively. Two vagina swab samples were taken from each participant under aseptic condition with a disposable speculum and transported immediately to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of FMC Abeokuta. Swab samples were processed using standard microbiological methods. Babies whose mothers were positive were observed to detect those with features of early onset Neonatal sepsis and screened for evidence of infection in conjunction with the paediatrician using C-reactive protein kit (fisher sure-vue CRP kit).
The main outcome measured were the presence of GBS infection among pregnant women and the neonatal outcome which included neonatal sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia.
The result showed incidence of GBS vagina colonization of 4.3% in pregnant women. There was no significant association between GBS colonization status and age, parity, level of education, occupation and religion of the pregnant women. All GBS isolates were 100% sensitive to Cefuroxime but Resistance to Erythromycin (16.7%), Ceftriaxone (16.7%), Ciprofloxacin (33.3%), Amoxicillin (66.7%), Genticin (66.7%), Ampicillin (83.3%) and Ofloxacin (83.3%). All C-reactive protein results were negative hence blood culture was not done. None of the babies showed evidence of early onset neonatal sepsis.
Prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization of vagina in late pregnancy at the Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta has been found in this study to be low (4.3%). This study also demonstrated no vertical transmission of GBS from mother to baby among the parturient. Also, none of the babies showed evidence of early neonatal sepsis. There were high and multiple resistance pattern of the GBS isolates to different antibiotics in the study.
In view of the low prevalence of GBS from the study, routine screening for the infection among pregnant women in this centre is not advocated. A larger study to determine the burden of the disease will be necessary.