PATTERN OF BLOOD GLUCOSE AND PREGNANCY OUTCOME OF WOMEN WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES AT UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL
Gestational diabetes mellitus is carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with first onset or recognition in pregnancy. It is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is important to accurately identify this condition in pregnant women to ensure appropriate management.
To determine the prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and perinatal outcome among women attending antenatal clinics.
This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Subjects comprised of pregnant women between 24-28 weeks presenting for antenatal clinic visits without a prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Consenting women were evaluated using fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance test also done between 24-28weeks for women with fasting plasma glucose values of ≤ 7mmol/l.75grams of glucose in 300ml of water was used for the oral glucose tolerance test. A repeat fasting plasma glucose was then conducted for these women between 36-38 weeks gestation
Two hundred and fifteen women were recruited for the study. Twenty women had gestational diabetes mellitus and the prevalence was 9% . The mean for the initial fasting plasma glucose done was 3.87mmol/l, the mean value at the time of the OGTT was 4.04mmol/l and the value , two hours after 75gram of oral glucose was given was 5.78mmol/l. /l.
Glycosuria was found to be able to predict the onset of GDM 8 times over its absence. Body mass index was also found to be statististically significant and was also able to predict the occurrence of GDM,(Odds ratio of 8.351 and1.112 respectively).
There was a statistical significance with the NICU admission, half of the babies born to women with GDM had NICU admission.
Glycosuria and body mass index can serve as useful predictors for onset of the condition. GDM was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes when the mode of delivery and NICU admission was considered.