PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL (LASUTH)
Bacterial vaginosis presents with malodorous vaginal discharge and is a potential cause of adverse reproductive and neonatal outcomes with a greater preponderance in the black race. Despite advancement in molecular technology, its aetiology, pathology and effective treatment remains unknown. Identification of its prevalence and its predisposing factors is necessary for its prevention.
The study aims at determining the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women at booking and factors associated with bacterial vaginosis at maternity units of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja.
The study carried out was a prospective cross-sectional study which was carried out at the maternity units of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital situated at Isolo and IfakoIjaye. It involved 350 consenting participants who were randomly and serially recruited until an adequate sample size was attained. Structured interview-based questionnaires were administered to all eligible selected participants. Smears were made from high vaginal swab taken aseptically, gram-stained and examined under the microscope for features of bacterial vaginosis using the Nugent scoring system. Data obtained were analysed using Epi-info 3.5.1.
Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 112 out of 350 women giving a prevalence of 32%. According to results from multivariate analysis, the risk of bacterial vaginosis was independently associated with no formal education [Relative risk (RR) 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.47- 4.56, p= 0.0011]; primary education (RR 3.50, 95% CI 2.42- 4.14, p< 0.0001); secondary education (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.16- 2.41, p=0.0089); sexual intercourse of at least twice per week (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.24-2.31, p=0.0033); douching with water (RR 2.69, 95% CI 1.41- 4.43; p=0.0039); douching with dettol (RR 7.19, 95% CI 2.51- 8.61, p=0.0040); douching with soap (RR 5.76, 95% CI 3.54-7.41, p< 0.0001); HIV infection (RR 2.75, 95% CI 1.65-3.15, p=0.0031) and booking weight of least 90kg (RR 1.77 95% CI 1.20- 2.33, p=0.0064).
The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital is within the range obtained from previous studies and is associated with low level of education, sexual intercourse of at least twice per week, douching habit, HIV infection and booking weight of at least 90kg. Early screening of women with this predictive factors and treatment of bacterial vaginosis where identified may reduce adverse reproductive outcomes due to bacterial vaginosis-associated complications.